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ADS EXPLOSIONPROOF KALIMANTAN
|Nama:||Tn. Hotman Sinaga [Pemasaran]|
|Alamat:||Taman Nagoya F6/3 Puri Surya Jaya|
Balikpapan 61254, Kalimantan Timur
|SOLE AGENT/ DISTRIBUTOR/ STOKIS PRODUK ADS|
|Rata-rata Tinjauan Pemakai||Tidak ada ulasan untuk perusahaan ini - Menulis tinjauan|
|Tanggal Bergabung:||07 Dec. 2009|
|Terakhir Diperbarui:||07 Dec. 2009|
|Sifat Dasar Usaha:||Pabrikan, Dagang, Jasa dari kategori Enerji|
We are expert in Flameable or Hazardous area.
We Have Stockist and Trading for many Brands around the world such as: ADS, ASP, CO.SI.ME, Euromotori, WEG, Baldor, Crouse Hinds, CEAG, HEPEC, Fondisonzo, Cortem, Italsmea, Iwasaki, PCE, Advance Galatrek ( Power Conditioner) , HRLM, Haishun, Warom, FCG, Samyung, Walsall, Bartec, ATX, CCG, RCN, Hawke, Palazoli, Glamox, Pauluhn, Funke Huster, Hubbel, Chalmit, Stahl, Gewiss, J- Auer, Malux, Killark, TECO, Enerdis.
INTRODUCTION TO HAZARDOUS AREAS
Many facilities deal with the processing & production, storage and distribution of materials, which happen to be flammable or explosive. Examples of such facilities are coal mines, oil production platforms, petroleum refineries, petrochemichal & chemical plants, gas processing plants and even grain silos. In these facilities, certain areas may have a risk of fire or explosion, due to the presence of explosive gases, vapors or dusts. These areas are known as classified locations. Both Hazardous areas and classified location refer to and mean the same thing. The instrumentation and electrical equipment that is used here has to be of special type, which is suitable and safe for usage in such locations. In this course, we will be studying these hazardous area equipment in more details. HISTORY RELATED TO MINES. In the early days of mining, the concept of hazardous areas, nature of flammable gases and the risks involved were not very clearly understood. The presence of fire dump ( a gases mainly consisting of methane) , was the causes of many accidents involving losses to life and property. A series of explosion and accidents in mines spurred some engineers to design safe systems that would cause explosions. These included miners safety lamps, safe signaling systems and the like. FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS, GASES AND VAPORS. Flammable Materials A flammable liquid ( or gas, or vapor, or dust) is one can catch fire under favourable conditions. These conditions are the right concentration, presence of an oxidizer and an ignition source. By implication, a flammable gas can also be explosive. Certain gases, vapors or dusts tend to form mixtures with air oxygen which can explode or ignite into a fire. Such a mixture is known as Explosive mixture. For a mixture to be explosive however, it has to be in certain proportions. CAUSES OF EXPLOSION. An explosion is caused when a flammable mixture of gas, vapor or dust and air is ignited. The resultant uncontrolled combustionis what is commonly perceived as an explosion. An explosion will result in fire, heat and shock waves emanating from the source of the explosion which in turn can be the cause for sustaining or triggering further explosions and fires in the entire area. 1. EQUIPMENT FOR USE IN AREAS WITH RISK OF EXPLOSION This preface describes the features that explosion- proof boxes and enclosures must have in order to be in plants where there are subtances that can create a hazardous atmosphere and cause an explosion or a, such as refineries, chemical plants or even spray booths. Once you have identified the hazardous areas in the plant, i.e. where gas, vapours, dusts or other materials present, as well as how long they are hazardous during the year and characteristics, you have to decide which equipment to install in these areas. Before studying the methods manufactures use for designing and producing enclosures and boxes that are safe in areas with risk of explosion due to a potentially explosives atmosphere, it is necessary to understand how the hazardous environments are classified, how an explosion can occur and the causes of combustion, etc. This is the only way to understand what manufacturers do to guarantee product safety. 2. CLASSIFYING HAZARDOUS AREAS Only highly qualified staff should identify and classify hazardous areas in chemical or petrochemical plant. They are ussualy appointed by the process managers, who decides where there is a permanently or occasinally explosive atmosphere in the plant. The most hazardous areas are where combustible gas or dusts may be present during normal operation or due to a fault. The classification is based on what type of combustible gas or dust is present in specific area. 3. COMBUSTION Combustion is the rapid transformation of chemical energy in to thermal energy. Oxidation, combastion and explosion are chemically exothermic reactions and only differ in reaction speed. In order for a reaction to occur, three fundamental component have to be present at the same time: * the combustible material - in the for of gas, vapours or dusts; * the combustion agent - oxygen in the air; * ignition energy - ' either electrical or thermal. Once the reaction has been triggered, the result can be slow combustion, a rapid flame or an explosion, depending on how the exothermic energy is released. # Minimum Ignition Energy The presence of the three components of the fire triangle is still not enough to cause a fire or an explosion. In fact there also must be certain characteristics that cause such an event. 1. the entire mixture consisting of the combustible material and the combustion agent must have a mixture ratio within very specific limits. 2. the ignition energy, measured in Joules, must exceed a threshold which is different for each substance. Ignition energy is basically a spark caused by an electrical phenomenon, such as the opening of switch contacts. # Explosive Limits There are two limits in mixture concentration beyond which an explosion can not occur: 1. As the concentration of combustible material in the mixture decreases, the energy required for ignition gradually increases to the point where ignition cannot occur due to the lack of combustible material. This point is called the Lower Explosive Limit ( L.E.L) . 2. As the concentration of combustible material increases, the energy required for ignition increases in the same way as in the previous point, to the point where ignition cannot occur due to the lack of the combustion agent. This point is called the Upper Explosive Limit ( U.E.L) In order to asses and classify the risk level of flammable subtances, there are two more fundamental parameters to consider: Flashpoint and ignition Point. These will not be dealt with in this preface as they are not relevant. # Ignition Sources As explained above, the characteristics of flammable or explosive mixtures prove that the presence of flammable substance is still not enough to cause an explosion or a fire. In fact the triangle also requires a sources of ignition to cause an explosion. The sources of ignition should therefore be considered with utmost attention, in order to prevent them from entering hazardous areas and causing accidents. Below is a description of the main sources of ignition. a. Arcs and sparks. The most common sources of ignition are arcs and sparks, usually caused by the opening or closing of contacts in switches or remote control switches, for example. Sparks can also be caused by loosened terminals or static electricity accumulated on plastic parts, like lighting fixture enclosures. Very litle energy is needed to ignite an explosive mixture. For example, a hydrogen- air mixture can be ignited by just 20 microjoules, which are equal to the energy of a spark produced by a 20 mA current with a voltage of a 10 V for the duration of 0.1 milliseconds. b. High Surface Temperature. The second most commont sources of ignition of an explosive mixture is the uncontrolled increase in surface temperature of any device. When a lamp is switched on, if the external temperature of the glass rises to the point which exceeds the Ignition Point of the mixture, the condition of the fire triangle are generated and the mixture will ignite. 4. PROTECTION METHODS The risk of explosion can be reduced by simply eliminating one or more components from the fire triangle. Equipments must thefore be designed in such a way as to prevent the three factors of the triangle from being present at the same time. Once you have identified the hazardous areas in the plant, you have to choose the electrical equipment for these areas in order to avoid the risk of explosion caused by accidental sparks or surface overtemperature. The protection methods are based on the following principles: A. Containment ( Ex- d = Explosion- proof) B. Prevention ( Ex- e; Ex- n; Ex- i) C. Segregation ( Ex- m; Ex- o; Ex- q; Ex- p) For any details pls contacts: Sales: Hotman Sinaga. Taman Nagoya F6/ 3 Puri Surya Jaya - Sidoarjo
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